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Seed Germination Necessities and Suggestions


A seed is an embryo plant and incorporates nearly all of the supplies and power to begin off a brand new plant. To get essentially the most from one’s seeds it’s needful to grasp a little bit about their wants in order that simply the fitting circumstances could be given for profitable development.

Probably the most traditional causes of failures with seed is sowing too deeply; a seed has solely sufficient meals inside itself for a restricted interval of development and a tiny seed sown too deeply quickly expends that power and dies earlier than it may attain the floor. Our seed information, subsequently, states the optimum depth at which every sort of seed must be sown. One other widespread trigger is watering. Seeds want a provide of moisture and air within the soil round them. Preserving the soil too moist drives out the air and the seed rapidly rots, whereas inadequate water causes the tender seedling to dry out and die. We will completely suggest the Polythene bag technique (No. 11) which helps to beat this drawback. Watering of containers of very small seeds ought to all the time be performed from beneath, permitting the water to creep up till the floor glistens.

Most seeds will in fact solely germinate between sure temperatures. Too low and the seed takes up water however can not germinate and subsequently rots, too excessive and development throughout the seed is prevented. Happily, most seeds are tolerant of a variety of temperatures however it’s clever to attempt to preserve a gentle, not fluctuating temperature, at across the determine we now have really useful in our information. As soon as a number of of the seeds begin to germinate the temperatures could be diminished by about 5 levels F and air flow and light-weight must be given.

Some perennials and tree and shrub seeds could be very gradual and erratic in germination. This will likely typically be as a result of seed dormancy, a situation that forestalls the seed from germinating even when it’s completely wholesome and all circumstances for germination are at optimum. The pure technique is to sow the seeds outdoor someplace the place they are going to be sheltered from extremes of local weather, predators, and so on. and depart them till they emerge, which perhaps two or three seasons later. Dormancy, nevertheless, could be damaged artificially and our part Nos. 12-16 offers with this.

This web page perhaps onerous to learn on a cellular platform. Please use a desktop or print this PDF.

HINTS ON SEED RAISING

1. Strelitzia and related

Don’t chip or mark the seed coat in any respect however merely take away the orange tuft and soak for as much as 2 hours, and even in a single day. Sow the seeds in moist sand, urgent them into the sand till solely a small a part of the black seed is seen and develop in a temperature of 75 levels F at the hours of darkness and make sure that the sand all the time stays moist. From 7 days onwards examine the container as soon as every week and as quickly as any bulges, roots or shoots are seen take away the germinated seed and pot up in a compost of half peat and half sand. We discover that Strelitzias typically produce a root with out a shoot and we now have additionally discovered that the younger shoots and roots are prone to fungal assault. Subsequently as quickly as attainable pot up and supply mild and contemporary air. Germination can begin inside 7 days and keep it up for six months or extra.

2. Palms; Banana; Espresso; Mini-Orange; Tea; Cycads and related

All this stuff can take a number of months to germinate and are very erratic in germination. Soak for a minimum of 2 hours in heat water earlier than sowing. (After soaking the parchment shell on the Espresso seeds must be eliminated with the fingernail). Sow in Levington or Arthur Bowers (compost and place at the hours of darkness in a temperature of 75 levels F, maintaining the compost moist always, however not moist. Examine commonly and sometimes dig round within the compost with a penknife. We usually sow our seeds slightly below the floor of the soil and we now have discovered that typically they make a really vigorous root with out producing a shoot in any respect. In the event you discover a seed with root then it must be excavated and potted up right into a 3-4” pot instantly when it’s going to produce a shoot. Cycads want to be potted up right into a compost of half sand and half peat. The Tea requires the above therapy however at a decrease temperature of 60-65 levels F.

3. Clivia and related

Sow these seeds instantly on receipt in Levington or a peat-based compost, overlaying with a 1/2 ” compost. Water and place at the hours of darkness in a temperature of 65-70’F. Germination ought to happen inside 3 weeks.

4. Ferns (Backyard and Indoor)

The fern spore wants a superb movie of moisture over which to swim so as to full the method of copy, subsequently a very good peat compost, resembling Levington, ought for use pressed down very firmly and which is much more moist than one would usually have it so as to present the moisture movie. The spore (seed) must be sprinkled shut collectively on the floor of the soil and never lined and the container must be lined with a bit of glass and positioned in subtle mild, however not darkness. It’s important to make sure that the compost stays moist always. Germination which commences with the looks of a movie of inexperienced jelly over the soil can take something from 1 -5 months.

You might want to strive germinating the fern spore on blotting paper which is positioned in a saucer and saved moist always. A clear cowl is inverted over the saucer and the whole thing positioned in a nicely lit however not sunny place. You’ll be able to really see the fern spores growing and when you’ll be able to see small plantlets showing alongside the jelly the blotting paper must be lifted and positioned on the floor of a container of Levington compost and watered nicely. It ought to then be lined with a clear cowl which may stay there till the vegetation are fairly massive.

5. Bromeliads; Cineraria; Calceolaria; Insect Eaters (Drosera, Nepenthes, Sarracenias); Dwelling Stones; Meconopsis; Rubber Vegetation; Saintpaulia; Streptocarpus; Tibouchina; Xmas Cactus; Begonia and related

These seeds must be sown on the floor of the compost and never lined. The compost must be fairly moist and we’d suggest that you just cowl the seed container with a bit of glass or clear plastic and depart in a temperature of roughly 65 levels F ready which receives subtle mild. As soon as a few of the seeds have germinated air must be admitted steadily in any other case the seedlings might damp off.

Alternatively, the seeds could be sown on to moist blotting paper or kitchen towel positioned in a saucer. Cowl with a clear cowl and place on a windowsill which receives loads of mild, however not direct daylight. Hold the blotting paper moist always and when the tiny seedlings are massive sufficient to deal with prick out into small pots. If the INSECT EATERS are sown utilizing the primary technique described the compost requires to be each moist but free draining. Use solely pure peat with no fertilizers added to which sphagnum moss must be added if obtainable.

6. Alstroemeria; Bonsai; Clematis; Hardy Cyclamen; Eucalyptus; Flower Garden; Helleborus; Hosta; Primula; Iris and related.

Sowing OCTOBER-FEBRUARY. Sow the seeds in John Innes seed compost, overlaying them with a skinny layer of compost. After watering place the seed container outdoors towards a North wall or in a chilly body, ensuring they’re protected towards mice, and depart them there till the spring. The compost must be saved moist however not moist always, and if the seed containers are out within the open then some shelter needs to be given towards extreme rain. Within the spring deliver the seed containers into the greenhouse, or indoors on to a nicely lit however not sunny windowsill and hold the compost moist. This could set off germination. If the seeds don’t germinate within the spring hold them in cool moist circumstances all through the summer time. As every seed germinates we’d suggest that you just transplant it nearly instantly into its personal pot.

Sowing MARCH-SEPTEMBER. Sow in John Innes seed compost, or one thing related, and place every container in a polythene bag and put into the fridge (not the freezer compartment) for 2-3 weeks. After this time place the containers outdoors in a chilly body or plunge them as much as the edges in a shady a part of the backyard border and canopy with glass or clear plastic. A few of the seeds might germinate through the spring and summer time and these must be transplanted when massive sufficient to deal with. The rest of the seeds might lay dormant till subsequent spring.

Germination of some objects, significantly Alstroemeria, Clematis, Hardy Cyclamen and Christmas Rose (Helleborus) might take 18 months or extra.

Another technique for rising PRIMULAS is to sow in a peat based mostly compost which has already been moistened and don’t cowl the seed. Cowl the container with a bit of glass or plastic and develop at the hours of darkness in a gentle temperature of 60F. That is fairly satisfactory and over 65’F germination might be inhibited. When the seeds begin to germinate sprinkle a skinny layer of superb compost over them and when the seed leaves come via this, transfer the field to a well-lit place with a temperature of 55’F. At no time ought to the seed field be in full solar.

Hardy Cyclamen have been discovered to germinate finest in whole darkness at round 55-60’F. We’ve had good outcomes with the next technique. Place the seeds between two items of damp filter paper, Kleenex tissue, and so on., then put right into a polythene bag and place this into an opaque container so as to exclude all mild. Examine the seeds after a month and take away and prick out because the seedlings seem, returning the ungerminated seeds to whole darkness.

7. Freesia

Soak the seeds for twenty-four hours and sow in Levington compost, or one thing related, and place in a temperature of 50-60’F. Germination can typically be gradual.

8. Nertera Granadensis (Bead Plant)

We not too long ago discovered that this topic requires a well-drained compost which is totally free from fertilizer (e.g. moss peat and sand in equal components). Sow by barely overlaying the seed and place a sheet of glass over the container, and depart in a temperature of 65-75’F. Flip the glass every day as extreme condensation can kill the younger seedlings. On germination, the seedlings look very skinny and spindly and the glass must be eliminated nearly instantly and the seed container moved to a nicely lit however not sunny place. Prick out as quickly as attainable right into a compost of fifty% pure peat and 50% sand. Hold moist and shaded till established.

9. Cactus and related

Make very shallow furrows in compost with a plant label and sow in these. No seed must be utterly buried. Water from beneath and canopy with glass and brown paper or black Polythene. Place in a darkish place in a temperature of 70-75F and hold moist. On germinating transfer to a light-weight however not sunny windowsill, give loads of air flow and water from beneath. Pot up after they start to overcrowd. Through the first winter solely hold heat and don’t permit to get too dry. If it isn’t attainable to develop heat then hold them drier. Subsequent years hold comparatively dry via the winter. May be planted outdoors, plunged to the rim, all summer time if required.

10. Lilies

Profitable germination of seeds of some lilies requires a interval of heat adopted by one among chilly.

Methodology 1. Put seeds in a screw-top jar in moist (not moist) peat and hold at 70-75F for 3-4 months. Examine commonly, any regular seedlings (that’s having root and seedling leaves) must be pricked out as they germinate. Any seeds which produce roots however not seedling leaves, sow in a pan and hold at 32-40’F for 3 months. Seed leaves and regular development will observe.

Methodology 2. Sow in a pan in summer time (heat spell); put in a body (or outdoors lined by a bit of glass) for the winter. Seeds will germinate in spring. Soil Humus wealthy (peat or leafmould) lime free and really free drainage (use 1/3 grit). By no means overwater, hold bulbs nearly dry from November to March.

11. For extra delicate seeds

A technique which has proved helpful for not solely small delicate seeds however for a variety of varieties is the Polythene bag technique.

The seeds must be sown on the floor of the moist compost, lined to their really useful depth if essential and the container is then positioned inside a Polythene bag after which the tip is sealed with an elastic band. The bag ought to ‘fog-up’ with condensation inside 24 hours and if this doesn’t happen place the container nearly as much as its rim in moisture till the soil floor glistens, then exchange within the bag and reseal. The bag is just not eliminated and usually no extra watering is required till the seeds germinate. Nonetheless, it’s clever, if left for an extended interval to verify the compost sometimes.

The seed container, bag and so on. must be positioned in a well-lit place with a gentle temperature. As quickly as a good variety of the seedlings emerge to take away the polythene bag, decrease the temperature a number of levels and supply loads of mild, however not vivid sunshine, to make sure that sturdy seedlings develop. It is usually useful to spray the seedlings sometimes for the primary 14 days.

SPECIAL TREATMENT

12. Laborious Seeds-Chipping

Some seeds, e.g. Candy peas, lpomaea and so on., have onerous seed coats which stop moisture being absorbed by the seed. All that’s wanted is for the outer floor to be scratched or abraided to permit water to move via. This may be achieved by chipping the seed with a pointy knife at an element furthest away from the ‘eye’, by rubbing evenly with sandpaper or with very small seed pricking rigorously as soon as with a needle and so on.

A few of our geranium seeds have already been handled on this approach once you obtain them.

13. Laborious Seeds-Soaking

Soaking is useful in two methods; it may soften a tough seed coat and in addition leach out any chemical inhibitors within the seed which can stop germination. 24 hours in water which begins off hand scorching is often adequate. If soaking for longer the water must be modified every day. Seeds of some species (e.g. Cytisus, Caragana, Clianthus) swell up when they’re soaked. If some seeds of a batch do swell inside 24 hours they need to be planted instantly and the rest pricked gently with a pin and returned to soak. As every seed swells it must be eliminated and sown earlier than it has time to dry out.

14. Stratification (chilly therapy)

Some seeds want a interval of moisture and chilly after harvest earlier than they are going to germinate-usually that is essential to both permit the embryo to mature or to interrupt dormancy. This era could be artificially stimulated by putting the moistened seed in a fridge for a sure time period (often 3- 5 weeks at round 41 F). With tiny seeds, it’s best to sow them on moistened compost, seal the container in a Polythene bag and depart every little thing within the fridge for the really useful interval. Nonetheless, bigger seeds could be blended with 2-3 instances their quantity of damp peat, positioned instantly right into a Polythene bag which is sealed and positioned within the fridge. Have a look at seeds every now and then. The seeds should be moist while being pre-chilled, nevertheless it doesn’t often profit them to be really in water or at temperatures beneath freezing.

Gentle additionally appears to be useful after prechilling and so pre-chilled seeds ought to have solely the lightest overlaying of compost over them if any is required, and the seed trays and so on. must be within the mild and never lined with brown paper and so on.

Data on Seed Stratification

15. Double Dormancy

Some seeds have a mix of dormancy’s and each needs to be damaged in flip and in the fitting sequence earlier than germination can happen; for instance, some Lilies, Tree paeonies, Taxus want a 3 month heat interval (68-86’F) throughout which the foundation develops after which a 3 month chilling to interrupt dormancy of the shoots, earlier than the seedling really emerges. Trillium wants a three-month chill adopted by three months of heat after which an extra three-month chill earlier than it’s going to germinate.

16. Out of doors therapy

The above-mentioned strategies (12-15) speed up the germination course of and assist to stop seeds being misplaced as a result of exterior hazards (mice, illness, and so on.) however outside sowing is simply as efficient albeit longer. The seeds are finest sown in containers of free draining compost and positioned in a chilly body or plunged as much as their rim outside in a shaded a part of the backyard, ideally on the north aspect of the home avoiding chilly drying winds and powerful solar.

Current exams present that a lot of the useful results of pre-chilling are misplaced if the seed is just not uncovered to mild instantly afterward. We, subsequently, suggest sowing the seeds very near the floor of the soil and overlaying the container with a sheet of glass. Another technique particularly with bigger seeds is to sow the seed in a well-prepared floor, cowl with a jam jar and press this down nicely into the soil in order that the seeds are enclosed and protected from predators, drying out and so on.

We’d additionally suggest you seek the advice of No. 6 which incorporates additional sensible solutions relating to the particular therapy of seeds.

Germination days.

The standard time interval through which a specific selection will germinate given optimum circumstances.

Gentle/Darkish

Seeds needing mild shouldn’t have any newspaper, brown paper and so on. positioned over the trays. Seeds needing darkish for germination must be positioned in whole darkness.

Gradual and irregular germination

That is the column with the “X”. Not all seeds will present without delay
-prick out every seedling because it turns into massive sufficient to deal with and don’t discard the container till nicely over the time advised.

Temperature

A gradual temperature between these limits is recommended-fluctuating temperatures can injury a seedling in its important early levels.

Compost

Most respected seed composts might be fairly satisfactory and we now have indicated the place a loam-based sort resembling John Innes or a peat-based sort resembling Levington could be barely extra appropriate. By no means ought to potting composts, which have further fertilizers, be used.

Sowing Depth

If doubtful sow shallowly, however all the time make sure that the compost floor is damp.
J.C. =Simply cowl the seed with compost or sharp sand. S=Sow on the floor and don’t cowl in any respect with compost.

Sowing in situ

The place really useful below the heading of feedback, these seeds could be sown outdoor. Moist soil labored right down to a superb tilth is crucial. For hardy annuals and perennials, sowing could be carried out from late winter onwards as quickly as the bottom is workable and has warmed up and half-hardy annuals in spite of everything hazard of frost is handed.

SUGGESTED SOWING TIMES

Many seeds, significantly in the home plant vary, could be sown indoors at nearly any season of the 12 months. Others, for instance, bedding vegetation, have a much-limited sowing season as a result of the vegetation must be at simply the fitting stage when planted out. We, subsequently, supply the next normal pointers to sowing instances. Your precise time of sowing will rely an amazing deal upon the regular temperature you’ll be able to preserve in your greenhouse/propagator, soil, native circumstances and so on.

HA              Hardy Annual                    Late winter/early spring. 

HHA             Half Hardy Annual               Early/ late spring. Usually 4-8 weeks earlier than planting outdoors.         

GBb             Greenhouse Bulb 

GP              Greenhouse Perennial            Anytime of 12 months. 

GSh             Greenhouse Shrub 

GT              Greenhouse Tree 

HP              Hardy Perennial                 Late winter/late spring and late summer time/autumn. 

HHP             Half Hardy Perennial            Late winter/spring. 

HBb             Hardy Bulb                      Late winter/late spring and late summer time/autumn

HHBB            Half Hardy Bulb                 Late winter/spring.

HB              Hardy Biennal                   Late spring/early summer time. 

HHB             Half Hardy Biennal              Summer time/autumn. 

HSh             Hardy Shrub                     Winter/late spring and late summer time/autumn.

HHSh            Half Hardy Shrub                Any time of 12 months. 

HT              Hardy Tree                      Winter/late spring and late summer time/autumn. 

HHT             Half Hardy Tree                 Any time of 12 months.

Any plant which is to be planted outdoors (HA, HHA, HHP, HHSh.) must be nicely hardened off beforehand. That is finest achieved by putting the vegetation outdoors in a chilly body for round every week earlier than planting out. The body could be left uncovered throughout gentle climate however all the time changed at evening. Alternatively, if no body is accessible to maneuver the packing containers outdoors to a sheltered spot through the day and produce indoors at evening.

The beneath file could be downloaded on this hyperlink:  Seed Germination Listing


Timber and shrubs are farther down the checklist.

The "ˆ" stands for gradual and irregular germination.



Selection        Kind     Germ Days          G Temp  Media        Sow Depth 	Feedback



Abarema        GP        7-56               70-75  Peaty           1/4" 	Scarify seed by rubbing between 2 items of emery paper.

Abelmoschus    HHA       15-30              75-80  Nicely drained    1/16" 	Soak 1 hour in lukewarm water earlier than sowing.

Abutilon       HHSh      21-30          ˆ   70-80  Peaty           JC

Acacia         HHSh      21                 70-80  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13. Soak in heat water for 4 hours.

Acaena         HP        30-100         ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    1/4"

Acanthus       HP        21-25              50-55  Peaty           1/4".

Achillea       HP        30-100   L     ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    S		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Achimenes      GP        21-30              65-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 5. Seed could be very small.

Acnistus       HHSh      21-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Aconitum       HP        5-270    L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"	See Nos. 6 & 14. Place in a fridge for six weeks.

Actaea         HP        30-365         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 6-8 weeks).

Actinidia      HP        60-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/8"		Male & Feminine flowers are borne on separate vegetation.

Adansonia      GSh       21-365         ˆ   70-80  Peaty           1/16"	Soak in hand scorching water. See No. 13.

Adenanthera    GSh       30-90              70-75  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13. Soak in scorching water.

Adenium        GSh       7-14     L         65-70  Very nicely draineJC

Adenophora     HP        30-90          ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    S

Adonis         HA, HP    30-120         ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Aechmia        GP        7-90     L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Aethionema     HP        30-90          ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Agapanthus     HHP       30-90              60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Agastache      HP        30-90              55     Nicely drained    1/16 "

Agave          GP        30-90    L     ˆ   55     Nicely drained    S

Ageratum       HHA       10-14    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S

Agrostemma     HA        14-21              55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Alchemilla     HP        21-30              60-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Allium         HBb       30-365   L         50     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. Place in fridge for 4 weeks.

Aloe           GP        30-180   L         70     Nicely drained    S

Alonsoa        HHA       14-21              60     Nicely drained    1/16"	Cowl seed with silver sand.

Alpina         GP        30-90              70-75  Peaty           1/8"

Alstroemeria   HP        30-365         ˆ   65-70  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 13. Soak in heat water. Sow singly in pcrts.

Alyssum        HA        7-14     L         55-75  Peaty           S		Annuals could be sown in situ.

Amaranthus     HHA       10-15              70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Amaryllis      HHBb      21-70          ˆ   65-75  Peaty           1/16"  	Don't dry off within the first 12 months after sowing.

Ammi           HHA       7-21               55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Ammobium       HHA       10-15              60     Nicely drained    1/16"

Anacampseros   GP        30-90    L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S

Anacyclus      HP        30-60    L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks.)

Anagallis      HHA       30-42              50-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Anaphalis      HP        30-60              55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Anchusa        HA, HP    7-30               70     Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ                 

Androsace      HP        30-365         ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    S		See No. 16.        

Anemone        HP        28-180         ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6.

Anemonopsis    HP        30-18O   L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    S		Sow in lime free compost.

Anigozanthus   GP        30-90    L         60-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.  

Anoda          HHA       14-21              55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ

Antennaria     HP        30-69              55-60  Nicely drained    JC		Simply cowl with silver sand.

Anthemis       HP        0-14               70     Nicely drained    S

Anthericum     HP        30-90              50     Nicely drained    1/8"

Anthriscus     HP, HB    14-21              55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		Often sown in situ

Anthyllis      HP        30-60              50     Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 13. Soak in heat water in a single day.

Antigonon      GP        21-30              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Antirrhinum    HHA       10-21    L         65-75  Peaty           S

Aphyllanthes   HP        21-56          ˆ   55-60  Peaty           JC

Aquilegia      HP        30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 6 or 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks). Hold temperature beneath 70°F

Arabis         HP        20-25    L         70     Nicely drained    S		May be sown in situ.

Arachis        GA        7-21               70-75  Peaty           1/4"		Sow, then place inside a polythene bag till germination.

Araujia        HHSh      90-180         ˆ   75-80  Nicely drained    JC

Arctotis       HHA       21-35              60-70  Nicely drained    JC

Ardisia        GSh       90-180             75     Nicely drained    1/4"

Arenaria       HP        15-30              55-65  Nicely drained    S

Argemone       HA        14                 65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Arisaema       HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Aristea        GP        30-90          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Aristolochia   GSh       30-90          ˆ   75-85  Peaty           S		See No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand scorching water).

Armeria        HP        14-21              60-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13. (6-8 hours in hand scorching water).

Arnica         HP        25-30              55     Nicely drained    JC		Likes an acid sandy soil.

Artemisia      HP        30-60    L         60-65  Nicely drained    S

Arum           HP        30-l80         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/8"

Aruncus        HP        30-90              55-65  Peaty           S

Asarina        HHP       14-21    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S

Asarum         HP        7-30               60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	Sow as quickly as attainable.

Asclepias      GP, HP    30-90          ˆ   50-75  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chil for 3-4 weeks).

Asparagus      GP        21-30              60-70  Peaty           1/4"		Soak then chip. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Asperula       HA        30-42    L         50     Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ or No. 14. (Pre-chill 2 weeks).

Asphodeline    HP        30             ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Aster          HHA       10-14              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	Pre-chill perennial asters, see No. 14. (Pre-chill 2 weeks).

Astilbe        HP        40-80              65     Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Astrantia      HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    S		See   No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Atriplex       HA        9-21               50-55  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ

Atropa         HP        21-30              50     Nicely drained    1/16"

Aubrieta       HP        14-21    L         65-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 5.         



Baileya        HHP       7-30               60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Balsamorrhiza  HP        14-42              60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Banana (Musa)  GP        7-180          ˆ   70-80  Peaty           1/2²		See No. 2.         

Banksia        HHSh      30-90          ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.                 

Baptisia       HP        7-10               70-75  Nicely drained    1/4"		Soak then chip. See Nos. 13 and 12.

Basil          HHA       7-10               60-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown situ   

Bauhinia       GSh       21-42              75-85  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand scorching water).

Beaufortia     HHSh      14-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Beaumontia     GSh       7-30               70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Begonia        HHP       15-60    L     ˆ   70-80  Peaty           S		See No. 5. Fibrous 70-75°F, tuberous 65-70°F.

Belamcanda     HP        14-60          ˆ   60-86  Nicely drained			See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7 days).

Bellis         HB        10-15    L         70     Peaty           1/16"	Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Beloperone     GP        30-180   L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Bergenia       HP        30-180         ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Berlandiera    HHP       30-90    L         60-70  Nicely drained    S

Beta           HB        14-21              55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		Often sown in situ.

Bignonia       GP        30-90          ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S

Billadiera     HHP       30-60              55     Sandy peat      JC

Billbergia     HHP       7-90     L         60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Biscutella     HHA       14-21              55-65  Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ.

Bixa           GT        30-180         ˆ   75-80  Peaty

Blandfordia    HHP       30-90+         ˆ   60-70  Sandy peat      JC

Bletilla       HHP       30-365   L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Boea           GP        20-60    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Boronia        GSh       30-60    L         65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Brachycombe    HHA       10-18              70     Nicely drained    JC

Brimeura       HBb       30-60          ˆ   60-65  Sandy peat      JC

Bromeliads     GP        7-90     L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Browellia      GP        14-21    L         75     Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Brunfelsia     GP        30-90          ˆ   70-80  Nicely drained    JC

Bulbinella     H/HHBb    30-90          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC

Bupthalmum     HP        14-30    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S



Cacti          GP        5-180    L     ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S		See No. 9.         

Caesalonia     HhSh      14-120         ˆ   75-80  Nicely drained    1/4"		See No. 13. (Soak 48 hours in hand scorching water).

Calandrinia    HHA       5-14               55-60  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Calceolaria    GB        14-21    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		Out of doors varieties hold temperature beneath 60°F.

Calendula      HA        10-14    D         70     Any             1/4"		May be sown in situ, or autumn for winter greenhouse flowers.

Calibanus      GP        30-120   L     ˆ   70-80  Peaty           S

Calliopsis     HA        14                 60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Callirhoe      HP        30-180+  L     ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		May be sown in situ or a chilly body.

Callistemon    HHSh      14-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Caltha         HP        30-90          ˆ   55-60  Peaty           1/16"	Hold compost slighty moist.

Camassia       HBb       30-180         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"

Campanula      HP, HB    14-28    L         60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Campsis        HHSh      30-90          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two months).

Canarina       GP        30-180         ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Candytuft      HA, HP    10-15              68-85  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in stiu. Perennials (60-65°F) could be gradual and irregular.

Canna          HHP       21-60          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/4"		See Nos 12 & 13, chip and soak for 48 hours.

Capsicum       GA        21-30    L         70-75  Peaty           S                 

Cardiocrinum   HBb       90-730         ˆ   50     Peaty           1/16"	See No. 6.         

Cardiospermum  HHA       21-30              65-70  Nicely drained    1/2"

Carica         GSh       30-120         ˆ   75     Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13. (Soak for 40 hours).

Carlina        HP        30-60    L         55-60  Nicely drained    S

Carthamus      HA        12-18              55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in stiu

Cassia         GSh       7-90               70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 12.        

Casuarina      GT        30-90              65     Nicely drained    JC

Catananche     HP        21-25              65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Catharanthus   GA/HHA    15-20    D         70-75  Peaty           1/8"

Celosia        GA        10-15    L         70-75  Nicely drained    JC     	Don't sow too early - likes heat bouyant circumstances.

Centaurea      HP, HA    7-14     D         60-70  Nicely drained    1/16"

Centranthus    HP        21-30              60-70  Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ.

Cephalaria     HP        21-60              55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ.

Cephalilitrum  HHA       14-21              65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Cerastium      HP        5-10               60     Nicely  drained   1/16"

Ceratotheca    HHA       8-14               70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"

Cerinthe       HHA       7-14               60-65  Nicely  drained   1/16"	May be sown in situ

Cheiranthus    HB        14-21              65-75  Nicely  drained   1/8"		Sow in a reserve mattress, prick out 6" aside. Plant out in Oct.

Chelidonium    HP        30-365         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 16.        

Chelone        HP        14-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	Wants good drainage.

Chiastophyllum HP        30-60              55     Nicely drained    S		Seeds very small.  

Chionodoxa     HBb       30-90          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    1/4"

Chlorogalum    HBb       30-90          ˆ   55-80  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 6.         

Chrysanthemum  HA, HP    10-18              60-70  Peaty           1/8"		Annuals could be sown in situ. HP's cut back temperature at evening.

Cimicifuga     HP        30-365         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"

Cineraria      GP        14-21    L     ˆ   70     Nicely drained    JC

Cirrhopetalum  GP        30-180   L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S

Cirsium        HP        15-18              70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"

Cissus         GSh       30-180         ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Cladanthus     HA        30-35              70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Clarkia        HA        21                   -    Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ, as sturdier vegetation are produced.

Claytonia      HA        14-21              65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Clematis       HP        30-270+        ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"		See Nos. 6 & 16.   

Cleome         HHA       10+14    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Clerodendrum   GSh       21-60          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"

Clianthus      GSh       14-42              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13.        

Clintonia      HP        30-90              55-60  Sandy peat      JC		Hold compost all the time simply moist.

Clitoria       GP        15-20              70-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See Nos. 12 and 13. (Chip and soak for twenty-four hours).

Clivia         GP        7-21               80-85  Peaty           1/4"		Sow instantly. See No. 3.

Cobaea         HHA       21-30              70-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	Stick the seed vertically into the compost.

Coccoloba      GSh       10-21              65-70  Nicely drained    1/4"		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Codonopsis     HP        7-42     L         60-70  Slighty acid    S

Coffea         GSh       42-56    L         75     Peaty           S		See No. 2. (Soak for 48 hours).                 

Colchicum      HBb       30-365         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 16.        

Coleus         HHP       10-20    L         65-75  Peaty           S		Indoors, likes to be heat with loads of vivid mild.

Collinsia      HHA       14-21                -    Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ, skinny out to six'.

Collomia       HA        21                   -    Nicely drained    1/8"		Greatest sown in situ, skinny out to six".

Columnea       GP        30-120   L     ˆ   72-75  Peaty           S

Commelina      HHP       30-37              70     Nicely drained    1/8"

Conophytum     GP        10-40    L     ˆ   75-80  Nicely drained    S

Convallaria    HP        60-365+  L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16.        

Convolvulus    HA        5-14               70-80  Nicely drained    1/8"		Chip (12) or soak (13) the seeds.

Cordyline      GP        30-90              75-80  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 13. (Soak for 10 minutes in hand scorching water).

Coreopsis      HP        20-25    L         55-70  Nicely drained    S		Annuals could be sown In situ

Correa         HHSh      30-90          ˆ   65-72  Nicely drained    JC

Cortaderia     HP        14-21    L         60-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Corydalis      HP        30-60    L         50-60  Nicely drained    S

Cosmos         HHA       5-10               68-86  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Cotula         HHA       14-42              50     Nicely drained    1/16"

Crambe         HP        21-42                -    Nicely drained    1/2"		Greatest sown In situ. 

Craspedia      HHA       14-30              70-75  Peaty           1/8"		May be sown in situ.

Crepis         HA        5-14               70-80  Wed drained     JC

Crocosmia      HP        30-90              55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"

Crocus         HBb       30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Crossandra     GP        25-30    L     ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Crotalaria     GSh       21-30              65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13. (Soak for two hours)

Cryptostegia   GCI       30-90          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13. (Soak for two hours)

Cunonia        GSh       30-60              70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Cuphea         HHP       8-10     L         70     Peaty           S

Cyananthus     HP        14-60    L         60-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Cycad          GP        30-90          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained			Half bury the seed lengthwise.

Cyclamen       GP        30-60    D     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           1/4"		Hold moist and in whole darkness.

Cyclamen       HP        30-18O   D     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 6.         

Cynara         HP        14-30              50-55  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown In situ.

Cynoglossum    HA        5-10     D         65-75  Peaty           1/4"

Cyperus        HHP       25-30              70-75  Peaty           JC		Hold the compost slighty moist.

Cyphomandra    GP        20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Cyphostemma    GP        30-60          ˆ   70     Nicely drained    1/4"		See No. 13. (Soak for two hours).

Cypripedium    HP        30-365   L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5. Very difficuft outdoors the laboratory.

Cyrtanthus     GP        30-90          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		Hold the compost silghty moisty



Dahlia         HHA       5-20               65-70  Peaty           1/16"  	Don't let the compost dry out.

Darlingtonia   HP        30-90          ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S      	Don't let the compost dry out. See additionally No. 5.

Datura         HHSH      21-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Delonix        GT        30-90          ˆ   75-85  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Delosperma     HHP       10-40    L         75     Nicely drained    S

Delphinium     HP        14-28    D     ˆ   50-55  Peaty           1/16"	Excessive temps. trigger dormancy. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).                 

Desmodium      GA        30-90              75-80  nicely drained    1/16"

Dianella       H/HHP     30-90              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"

Dianthus       HHA, HP   14-21              60-70  Nicely drained    JC

Diascia        HHA       14-30              60     Nicely drained    JC

Dicentra       HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).

Dichorisandra  GP        7-60               70-75  Peaty           JC

Dictamnus      HP        30-180         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained			See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-8 weeks).

Didymocarpus   Gp        14-56    L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S

Dierama        HP        30-180   L     ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    S		See No. 5.         

Dietes         HHP       30-90          ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    JC

Digitalis      HP, HB    15-20    L         60-65  Peaty           S		May be sown in situ.

Dimorphotheca  HHA       10-15    L         60-70  Peaty           JC

Dionaea        GP        30-90    L     ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Dioon          GP        30-90          ˆ   70-75  1/2 peat, 1/2 sand 1/4"	See No. 2.         

Dioscorea      HP        21-36              70-75  Peaty           1/8"

Diplarrhena    HP        30-90              55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Diplolaena     GSh       30-150   L     ˆ   7-8O   Peaty           JC

Dipsacus       HB        4-30                 -    Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ  

Disporum       HP        30-180+  L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).

Dizygotheca    HHSh      20-30    L         70     Peaty           S

Dodecatheon    HP        90-365             60-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6.         

Dolichos       HHA       14-30              70     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13.        

Doronicum      HP        15-20    L         70     Nicely drained    S		Cut back soil tempeature at evening

Doryanthes     HHP       30-60              65     Peaty           JC		See No. 13. (Soak for 3 hours).

Draba          HP        30-90          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC		See Nos. 6 and 14. 

Dracaena       GSh       30-180   L     ˆ   75-85  Nicely drained    S		Hold the compost barely moist

Dracunculus    HP        30-180         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		Hold the compost barely moist

Drosera        GP        30-90    L         55-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Dryas          HP        50-180         ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6.         

Duchesnia      HP        30-90    L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Duranta        GSh       30-60              70-75  Peaty           JC



Eccremocarpus  HP        30-60          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC		Cowl the seed barely with silver sand

Echeveria      HHP       21-90    L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Echinacea      HP        10-21    L         70-75  Peaty           1/8"		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Echinops       HP        15-60              65-75  Peaty           1/16"

Echium         HA        7-14               70     Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ.

Edraianthus    HP        30-60    L         55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Egg Plant      GA        10-21          ˆ   70     Peaty           1/8"		Hold the compost barely moist

Emilia         HHA       8-15               70     Nicely drained    1/16"

Epilobium      HP        14-30              50-60  Nicely drained    1/8"

Episcia        GP        25-40    L         70-80  Peaty           S		Seeds mud like. See additionally No. 5.

Eranthis       HBb       30-365         ˆ   60-68  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6 and 14.

Eremurus       HP        30-365   L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16         

Erica          GP        30-120   L     ˆ   60-70  Acid Peat       S		See No. 5.         

Erigeron       HP        15-20              55     Nicely drained    S

Erinus         HP        20-25              65-75  Nicely drained    S

Eriobotrya     HHSh      30-180         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).                   

Eriophyllum    HP        14-42               -     Nicely drained    1/8"		Greatest sown outside and transplanted.

Eryngium       HP        5-90     L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 6.         

Erysium        HP        14-30                -    Nicely drained    1/4"		Sow in situ.       

Erythrina      HHSh      10-15              70-75  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Erythronium    HBb       30-365         ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 6.         

Eschscholtzia  HA        14-21              60-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		Resents transplanting, finest sown in situ.

Eucalyptus     HHSh, HT  14-90          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		Sow seed and chaff collectively. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Eucnide        HHA       21-30              60-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Eucomis        GBb       20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Eupatorium     HP        30-90          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC

Euphorbia      HHA,HP,GSh10-15          ˆ   70-80  Nicely drained    1/4"		Pre chill HPs for 7 days after which soak for two hours.Sow in lime free compost(Ericaceous).      

Eustoma        HHP       10-21    L         68-77  Nicely drained    S

Exacum         GA        15-20    L         70-75  Peaty           S		Seed mud like. See No. 5.



Fascicularia   HHP       30-120   L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Fatsia         HHSH      15-20              70-75  Peaty           1/4"		Hold the compost barely moist.

Faucaria       GP        14-30          ˆ   60     Nicely drained    JC		Simply cowl with sharp sand.

Feijoa         HHSH      21-42              55-60  Peaty           1/16"	Rinse seeds 3 instances earlier than sowing.

Felicia Amelloides HHP   30                 55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Place in fridge for 3 weeks).

Felicia BergerianaHHA    30                 70     Nicely drained    JC

Ferns          HP, GP    30-180   L         65     Peaty           S		See No. 4.         

Ficus          GSh       15-90    L     ˆ   70-80  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Filipendula    HP        30-90              55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Flower Garden    HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    S		See Nos. 6 or 16. 

F.Cabbage & Kale HB      14-21              70-75  Peaty           1/8"		May be sown in situ

Foeniculum     HP        10-14    D         65     Nicely drained    1/8"		Dislikes transplanting, sow in situ.

Francoa        HHP       14-30    L     ˆ   50-55  Peaty           S		See No. 6.         

Freesia        HHBB      25-30          ˆ   65-75  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 7.         

Fritillaria    HBb       330-540        ˆ   55-M   Peaty           1/16"	See No. 6.         

Fuchsia        GP        21-90    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5. Soak in rain water for 3-4 days. Hold compost moist.



Gaillardia     HP, HHA   15-20    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Galega         HP        14-60              -      Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown outside and transplanted.

Galtonia       HBb       15-20          ˆ   70     Peaty           1/16"

Gardenia       GSh       25-30              70-75  Peaty           1/8"		Use a lime free compost (Ericaceous).

Gaura          HHA       14-30              65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Gazania        HHA       8-21     D         60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Gentiana       HP        14-180   D     ˆ   70-75  Lime free       JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two months).

Gentianopsis   HA        21-30    L          -     Nicely drained    S		Sow outside and skinny. Delicate to root disturbance.

Geranium       HHP       3-21           ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Geranium       HP        30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6.         

Gerbera        GP        15-25    L         70-75  Peaty           JC		Sow sharp finish down, do not cowl completly.

Gesneria       GP        14-21    L         70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Geum           HP        21-28+         ˆ   65-70  Peaty           1/16"	Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Gilia          HA        17                  -     Nicely drained    1/8"		Sow outside and skinny out.

Glaucidium     HP        30-90          ˆ   50-55  Peaty           JC

Glaucium       HA        14-21    D         60-65  Nicely drained    JC		Transplant rigorously, finest sown In situ.

Globularia     HP        10-30    L         55     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chil for 3 weeks).

Gloriosa       HHBb      30                 70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Gloxinia       GP        15-30    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Gnaphalium     HP        14-21    L         60-70  Nicely drained    S

Godetia        HA        7-14               60-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ

Gomphrena      HHA       6-8      L         70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Gourds         HHA       15-29              80     Peaty           1/4"		Can even deal with as No. 5.

Grass Tree     HHP       30-180   L     ˆ   65     Peaty           S		See No. 4.         

Grasses        HP, HHA   10-90    L     ˆ   60-75  Peaty           S

Grevillea      HHSh      20-25    L         75-80  Nicely drained    S		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Gunnera        HP        14-60          ˆ   70-80  Peaty           1/16"

Guzmania       GP        7-90     L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Gypsophila     hA, HP    10-15          ˆ   70     Peaty           JC



Hacquetia      HP        30-180         ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16.        

Haemanthus     GBb       7-42               60-65  Peaty           JC

Haplopappus    HP        21-30              60-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Hardenbergia   HHP       30-90          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Harpephyllum   GP        10-30              70-75  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 13.  (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Haworthia      HHP       21-60    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Hedychium      HHP       20-25              70-75  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 13.  (Soak for two hours).

Hedysarum      HP        14-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Helenium       HP        7-10               70     Peaty           1/16"	May be sown in situ. Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Helianthemum   HP        15-20              70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 5.         

Helianthus     HA        10-14              70-85  Peaty           1/4"		May be sown in situ.

Helichrysum    HHA       7-10     L         65-75  Nicely drained    S

Heliophila     HHA       14-21              60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Heliopsis      HP        10-15              70     Nicely drained    1/16"

Heliotropium   HHP       14-42          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Helipterum     HA        14-20              65-75  Peaty           1/16"	May be sown in situ

Helleborous    HP        30-545         ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained			See No. 6. Could have to undergo two winters outside.

Hemerocallis   HP        21-49              60-70  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).

Hemiphora      GP        30-120         ˆ   70-75  Peaty           JC

Hepatica       HP        30-360   L         50-55  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Heracleum      HP        30-90               -     Nicely drained    1/4"		Sow in situ. See No. 6.

Herniaria      HP        10-12              70     Nicely drained    JC

Hesperis       HB        20-25    L         70-85  Peaty           S		May be sown in situ. Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Heuchera       HP        10-60    L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S

Hibiscus       HHP, GA   15-30          ˆ   75-80  Peaty           1/16"	Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 & 13.

Hieracium      HP        21-30              50-60  Nicely drained    JC

Hippeastrum    HHBB      30-42              75     Pemy            1/8"

Hollyhock      HA, HP    10-12    L         60-70  Peaty           S		May be sown in situ.

Holmskioldia   GSh       30-90          ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Hosta          HP        30-90          ˆ   50     Peaty           1/16"	Hold compost slighty moist.                  

Humulus        HP        25-30              70-75  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ.

Hunnemannia    HHA       15-20              70-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ.  Makes a pleasant pot plant.

Hutchutinsia   HP        14-30               -     Nicely drained    1/4"		Sow in situ.       

Hyoscymus      HB, HA    14-42               -     Nicely drained    1/8"		Sow in situ.       

Hypericum      HSh       30-90          ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    JC

Hypoestes      GP        10-21              70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Hyssopus       HP        14-42              60-70  Peaty           1/16"



Iliamna        HP        30-360   L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Impatiens      HHA       21-30    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5. Preserve a really excessive humidity till germination.

Incarvillea    HP        25-30              55-65  Nicely drained    S		See No. 5.         

Indigofera     HHSh      30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/8		See No. 13. (Soak for twenty-four hours).

Inula          HP        14-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ

Ionopsidium    HA        14-21              55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"	Sow in situ.       

Ipomaea        HHA       5-21           ˆ   70-85  Peaty           1/4"		Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Iris           HP        30-545         ˆ   60-70  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 6. Could take two winters outside.

Isatis         HB        14-42              50     Nicely drained    1/16"	Sow in situ.       

Ixiolirion     HBb       30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16"

Ixora          GSh       30-120         ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).



Jacaranda      GSh       10-15              70-85  Peaty           JC

Jacobaea       HA        8-21               60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Jacobinia      GP        30-180         ˆ   75-80  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13. soak for twenty-four hours).

Jasione        HP        10-21              70     Nicely drained    JC

Jatropha       GP        30-120         ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Jovellana      H/HHSh    30-90          ˆ   60-50  Nicely drained    S

Kalanchoe      GP        7-30     L     ˆ   65-75  Weil drained    S		Likes good air circulation.

Kallstroemia   HHA       14-21          ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Kaulfussia     HA        21-30              -      Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ.  Skinny to 6².

Kentranthus    HP        21-40              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Kirengeshoma   HP        30-300             55-65  Peaty           JC		Hold compost uniformly moist.

Knautia        HP        10-21                -    Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ  Skinny to six'.

Kniphofia      HP        10-30              70-75  Peaty           1/4"		Cut back soil temperature at evening

Kochia         HHA       10-15    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S



Lagerstroemia  HHSh      15-20    L         70     Nicely drained    S		See No. 5.         

Lagunaria      GT        30-180         ˆ   68-70  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13.      (Soak for two hours).

Lamium         HP        30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Lampranthus    HHP       15-30    D         65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Lantana        HHP       42-60          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13.      (Soak 1 day in hand scorching water).

Lapageria      HHP       30-90          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13.      Soak for 3 days altering water 3/5 instances per day

Lapeirousia    HBb       30-90          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/8"

Larkspur       HA        14-21    D         50-55  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks). Excessive temperatures trigger dormancy.

Lasthenia      HA        17-21                -    Nicely drained    1/8"		Greatest sown in situ  Skinny to 4".

Lathyrus       HP        20-30          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/4"		Soak or chip the seeds. See Nos. 12 or 13.

Lavatera       HA, HB, HP15-20              70     Peaty           1/16"                 

Lavender       HSh       21-90          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-6 weeks).

Lawrencellida  HHA       21-30    L         65-75  Nicely drained    S

Layia          HA        8-30               70-75  Nicely drained    1/8"

Leea           GP        30-90          ˆ   75-80  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 13.        

Leontopodium   HP        10-42    L     ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Leptosiphon    HA        17-21              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	Greatest sown in situ. 

Leptospermum   HHSh      30-180         ˆ   60     Peaty           1/16"

Leptosyne      HA        6-12     L         60-65  Peaty           1/8"

Leschenaultia  GSh       30-120         ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    JC

Lewisia        HP        365+     L     ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for five weeks).

Liatris         HP        20-25              55-75  Nicely drained    JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Libertia       HP        30-180         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 6.         

Ligularia      HP        14-42          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		Hold compost slighty moist.

Lilies         HBb       30-365         ˆ   65-75  Peaty           JC		See No. 10 for extra particulars.

Limnanthes     HA        14-21              60     Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ

Limonium       HP, HHA   10-20    D         65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Suworowii wants whole darkness to germinate.

Linanthus      HA        17-21              -      Nicely drained    1/8"		Sow outside and skinny out.

Linaria        HP        10-15              55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Linum          HP        20-25              65     Nicely drained    1/8"		Greatest sown in situ. 

Lisianthus     HHP       10-21    L         68-77  Nicely drained    S

Lithops        GP        10-40    L     ˆ   75-80  Nicely drained    S

Lobelia        HHA,HHP   15-20    L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S		Place seed of perennial varieties in fridge for 3 months (See No. 14).

Lomatia        HHSh      30-180         ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Lonas          HA        5-7      D         70     Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ

Lotus          HHP       14-30          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		Transplant into 3" pots.

Luculia        HHSH      30-60          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Lunaria        HB        10-14              70     Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ

Lupin          HP        15-60    D     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		Soak or chip the seeds. See Nos. 12 or 13.

Lychnis        HP        21-30    L         70     Nicely drained    S		See No. 12. (pre-chill for two weeks).

Lysichitum     HP        30-60          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/4"		Hold compost saturated by standing in water.

Lysimachia     HP        30-90          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		Hold compost moist.

Lythrum        HP        15-30              65-70  Peaty           JC



Macropidia     GP        30-90    L         60-65  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Malope         HA        14-30              65-75  Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Malva          HP        5-21               70     Peaty           1/16"

Mandeville     HHSh      14-30              65-75  Nicely drained    JC		Sow in 1/2 sand and 1/2 peat.

Mandragora     HP        50-60              55-60  Peaty           1/8"		

Marigold       HHA       5-14               70-75  Peaty           JC

Matricaria     HP        5-21     L         65-75  Nicely drained    S		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Maurandia      HHP       14-21              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"

Meconopsis     HP        14-28          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		Hold barely moist. See additionally No. 5.                 

Melia          GT        30-180         ˆ   55     Nicely drained    1/8"

Melianthus     HHSh      30-180         ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Mentzelia      HA        5-21               55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Mertensia      HP        30-60          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

MesembryanthemumHHA      15-20    D         65-75  Nicely drained    S

Metrosideros   HHSh      30-90          ˆ   60-60  Peaty           1/16"

Mimosa         GP        21-30    L     ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 13. (Soak for 20 minutes in nearly boiling water).

Mimulus        HHP, HP   7-21     L         70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks). Then No. 5.

Mina           HHP       20-25              70     Nicely drained    1/4"		Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Mirabilis      HHA       7-21     L         70     Nicely drained    S	



MIXTURES: the different sorts in these teams will all germinate at

completely different instances. Prick out every because it emerges and don't discard



Conifer Timber    HT      30-365         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		See Nos. 6 and 16  

Deciduous Timber  HT      30-365         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		See Nos. 6 and 16

Wild Flowers  HA,HP      30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/16²	See No. 6

Eternal Fls. HHA     14-21              65-75  Nicely drained    1/16²	May be sown in situ

Eternal Fls. HP      30-180         ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6

Exotics          GP      30-180         ˆ   65-75  Peaty           JC		Fls. to draw B/flies

                 HA      14-21                -    Nicely drained    1/8²		May be sown in situ

Australian Bush  GP      30-180   L     ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S

Shore/Coastal    HB,HP   30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Silver/Gray Fol. HP,HHA  30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Succulents       HHP     30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S





                   

Moluccelia               21-35    L     ˆ   60     Nicely drained    JC		Pre-chill for five days then 40°F temp. evening offers finest outcomes.

Momordica      HHA       14-21              65-75  Peaty           1/8"		Sow seeds singly in 3' pots.

Monarda        HP        10-40              60-70  Peaty           JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Moraea         HHBb      30-90          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/8"

Morina         HP        14-42              50     Peaty           1/16"

Mucuna         GP        21-90              65-75  Peaty           1/4"

Muscari        HBb       42-60              60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Mutisia        H/HHSh    30-90          ˆ   70     Nicely drained    1/16"

Myosotidium    H/HHP     30-180         ˆ   65-70  Peaty           1/16"

Myosotis       HB        14-30    D         65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5 however hold in whole darkness.

Myrrhis        HP        14-42              55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ



Naranjilla     GP        10-30          ˆ   70-80  Peaty           1/16"

Nasturtium     HA        7-12               65     Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ  

Nemesia        HHA       7-21               55-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Nemophila      HA        7-21               55     Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ.

Neperrthes     GP        30-90          ˆ   75-85  Peaty           S		Dont let compost dry out. See additionally No.5.

Nepeta         HP        7-21               60-70  Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ.                   

Nerine         HHBb      14-21              65-70  Nicely drained    S		Sow instantly, hold moist and place in a polythene bag.

Nerium         GSh       30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S

Nertera        GP        30-90    D     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    SC		See No. 8.         

Nicandra       HA        15-20              70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Nicotiana      HHA       10-20    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S

Nierembergia   HHP       15-30          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Nigella        HA        10-15              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	Greatest sown in situ. Resents transplanting.

Nolana         HHA       14-30              60-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be sown in situ.

Nomocharis     HBb       30-180   L     ˆ   45-50  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16         

Notholirion    H/HHBb    30-180   L     ˆ   45-50  Nicely drained    JC		See No .16         



Ocimum         HA        14-42    L         55-60  Nicely drained    S

Oenothera      HP        15-30    L         65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Omphalodes     HP        14-42              65-75  Nicely drained    1/8"

Onopordon      HP,HB     30-60              55-60  Nicely drained    1/4"		May be sown in situ.

Onosma         HP        30-60              50     Nicely drained    1/16"

Orchid         GP        90-365   L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S

Orchis         HBb       90-365   L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S

Ornithogalum   GBb       30-180         ˆ   55-60  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 6          

Orphium        GSh       21-42    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S

Osteospermum   HHA,HP    10-15    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Oxalis         HBb       14-60              55-68  Nicely drained    JC



Pachypodium    GP        30-180   L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    S

Paeonia        HP        365+     L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16. Hold shaded and moist.

Palms          GP        60-180         ˆ   75-80  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 2          

Pansy          HP        14-21    D     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-Chill for two Weeks.)

Papaver        HP        10-30    D         55     Nicely drained    S		Greatest sown in situ.  P. Orientale Wants mild for germination.

Paradisea      HP        30-180         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6          

Parnassia      HP        30-180         ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to maintain soil all the time moist.

Parochetus     HP        30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13.

Passiflora     HHP       30-365         ˆ   70-85  Peaty           1/4"		See No. 13. Give the seed container an occasional soaking.

Pavonia        GSh       30-60          ˆ   75     Peaty           1/16"

Peanuts        GA        7-21               70-75  Peaty           1/4"		Sow and place inside a polythene bag till germination.

Peltiphyllum   HP        30-90    L     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           S		Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to maintain soil all the time moist.

Penstemon      HP        18-21    L         55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No.14          

Pentas         GP        25-40              70-75  Peaty           S		See No.5           

Peperomia      GP        15-30              70-75  Peaty           S		See No.5           

Perilla        HHA       15-30    L         65-75  Peaty           S

Petrea         GSh       30-60    L         65-75  Peaty           S

Petunia        HHA       10-21    L         70-75  Peaty           S      	F1 hybrids and doubles may have 80°F to germinate.

Phacelia       HA        12-30    D         55-65  Nicely drained    1/4"		Greatest sown in situ.  Whole darkish required.

Phaeomeria     GP        30-90          ˆ   80     Nicely drained    1/8"

Phaseolus      GP        30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16"	Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 an 13.

Philodendron   GP        30-120         ˆ   75-80  Peaty           1/16"

Phlomis        HP        14-42              60     Nicely drained    JC

Phlox-Annual   HHA       10-21    D         55-65  Peaty           1/16"	Sow direct into pots because it resents transplanting.

Phlox-PerennialHP        25-30    D     ˆ   70     Peaty           1/16"	See No.14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Phormium       HP        30-180         ˆ   60-65  Peaty           JC                  

Phuopsis       HP        30-40    L         50-60  Nicely drained    S

Phygelius      HP        10-14              70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Physalis       HP        21-30    L         70     Nicely drained    S

Physostegia    HP        21-30              55-75  Peaty           JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Phyteuma       HP        30-90          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No.6           

Phytolacca     HP        30-60          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Pilea          GP        14-60    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Pinguicula     HHP       30-120   L     ˆ   55     Peaty           S		See No. 5. Use a compost 1/2 peat and 1/2 sand.

Pittosporum    HHSh      30-60              55     Nicely drained    1/16"	Place seeds in a bag and dip in boiling water for few seconds.

Platycodon     HP        15-30    L         70     Nicely drained    S

Platystemon    HA        14-30              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16		Sow in situ        

Plumbago       GP        25-30              70     Nicely drained    JC

Plumeria       GP        30-180         ˆ   65-75  Peaty           1/16"	See No. 13.        

Podolepis      HHA       21-30    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S

Podophyllum    HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           JC		Pre-chill for 3 weeks. Hold compost all the time moist.

Polemonium     HP        20-25              70     Peaty           1/16"	Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Polygala       HSh       30-60    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Polygonatum    HP        30-545         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6.         

Polygonum      HP,HHA    21-60          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/16"  	Don't overwater      

Portulaca      HHA       14-21    L         70-85  Nicely drained    S

Potentilla     HP        14-30              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Poterium       HP        30-60          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6.         

Primula-IndoorsGA, GP    20-25    L     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           S		P.Sinensis wants darkness for germination.

Primula-OutdoorHP        21-40    L     ˆ   60-65  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Proboscidia    GA/HHA    15-42          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/4"

Protea         HHT       30-90          ˆ   65-75  Peaty           1/4"		Sow instantly.   

Prunella       HP        30-60              55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Psidium                  30-60          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           JC		See No. 13.        

Pulmonaria     HP        30-42              60-65  Peaty           JC

Pulsatilla     HP        30-180         ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6. Trim 'tails' off seeds earlier than sowing

Pyrethum       HHA, HP   30-60          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC		Doubleness of flowers will increase in 2nd 12 months.

Pyrola         HSh       30-90    L     ˆ   55     Peaty           S



Ramonda        HP        30-60    L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    S

Ranunculus     HP        30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6.         

Raoulia        HP        30-90    L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    S

Ratibida       HA/HB/HP  21-42              68-75  Nicely drained    1/8"		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Rechsteineria  GBb       30-60              70     Nicely drained    JC

Rehmannia      H/HHP     21-42    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Reseda         HB,HA     5-21     L         70     Nicely drained    S		Further care required when transplanting.

Rheum          HP        21-42              60-65  Peaty           1/8"

Rhodanthe      HHA       14-30              75-80  Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ

Rhodochiton    HHP       12-42          ˆ   60-65  Peaty           JC

Rhodohypoxis   HP        30-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC		Lime free compost required.

Rhoeo          GP        14-60              65-70  Peaty           JC		See No. 13. (Soak for 1/2 hour).

Ricinus        HHA       15-21              70-75  Peaty           1/4"		These seeds are toxic.

Rochea         HHP       14-42    L         60-70  PBM             S		See No. 5.         

Rodgersia      HP        12-60    L         55-60  Peaty           S                 

Roscoea        HP        30-365   L     ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    S		See No. 16.        

Rothmannia     HHSh      30-90          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/8"		See No. 13. (Soak for five hours).

Rudbeckia      HHA, HP   5-21     L         70     Peaty           S		Fulgida see No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Ruella         HP        30-60          ˆ   65-75  Peaty           JC

Ruta           HP        30-42              60-65  Nicely drained    JC



Sagina         HP        10-21              55     Nicely drained    JC

Saintpaulia    GP        30-60    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Salpiglossis   HHA       15-30    D     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S

Salvia         HHA, HA   10-14    L     ˆ   68-80  Nicely drained    S		For Patens & Superba see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Sandersonia    HHBb      30-90          ˆ   75     Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 13.        

Sanguinaria    HP        30-90          ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    1/16"

Sanguisorba    HP        30-60              50-55  Nicely drained    S

Sanvitalia     HA        10-21    L         70     Nicely drained    S		Take care when transplanting.

Saponaria      HA,HP     10-21    L         70     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Sarracenia     HP        30-90    L     ˆ   75-80  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7 days) then No. 5.

Saxifraga      HP        15-60          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 6.         

Scabiosa       HA        10-15          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Schefflera     GSh       20-30              75     Peaty           1/16"

Schizanthus    GA        7-14     D         60-75  Peaty           S

Schizopetalon  HHA       6-21               60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Schizostylis   HBb       30-90          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"

Scilla         HP        30-180         ˆ   50     Peaty           1/16"	See No. 6.         

Scutellaria    HP        14-180         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC

Sedum          HP        15-30          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		See No. 6.         

Sempervivum    HP        15-30          ˆ   70     Nicely drained    S

Senecio        HHA       10-21    L         65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"

Setcreasia     HHP       30-40              70     Peaty           JC

Shortia        HP        30-60          ˆ   60-65  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Sidalcea       HP        14-42              50     Nicely drained    1/8"

Silene         HP        15-20              70     Nicely drained    JC		May be sown in situ.

Silybum        HA        14-21              55-60  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ.

Simmondsia     HHT       14-21              65-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13. (Soak for 12 hours).

Sinningia      GP        10-21    L         70     Peaty           S

Sisyrinchium   HP        30-180         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 6.         

Smilacena      HP        30-180   L     ˆ   60-65  Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Smithiantha    GP        15-40    L         75-77  Peaty           S		Very small seeds   

Solanum        GP        15-21    L         70-80  Nicely drained    S		The vegetation must be positioned outside via the summer time for pollination.

Soldanella     HP        30-180   L     ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Solidago       HP        14-42              50     Nicely drained    JC

Sparaxis       HBb       30-90          ˆ   50-55  Nicely drained    1/16"

Sparmannia     GSh       21-30              65-75  Peaty           JC

Specularia     HA        12-30                -    Nicely drained    1/16"	Sow outside and skinny out.

Spigelia       H/HHP     30-60    L         65-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Stachys        HP        15-30    L         70     Nicely drained    JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening. Develop on the dry aspect.

Stapelia       GP        7-30     L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		Use 1/2 peat 1/2 sand.

Stenocarpus    HHT       30-90          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC                  

Stephanotis    GP        15-90          ˆ   75-80  Peaty           1/16"	Hold the compost barely moist.

Stereospermum  GSh       30-18O         ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Shares         HHA       10-14    L         55-60  Nicely drained    S		May be sown in situ.

Stokesia       HP        25-30              70     Peaty           1/16"

Strelitzia     GP        30-180         ˆ   70-75  Sand            S		See No. 1. Soak for as much as 3 days altering the water every day.

Streptocarpus  GP        15-30    L         55-65  Peaty           S		Very small seeds. See No. 5.

Streptosolon   HHSh      30-90          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Stylomecon     HA        14-21              -      Nicely drained    1/16"	Sow outside and skinny out to six".

Succisa        HP        10-21          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Sutherlandia   H/HHSh    21-30              60-65  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 13. (Soak for 3 hours).

Candy Pea      HA        10-20    D         55-65  Peaty           1/4²		File or soak seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13. Develop cool.

Symphyandra    HP        21-30    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC



Tacca          GP        30-270         ˆ   80-85  Peaty           1/8"		Soak for 72 hours. See No. 13.

Tacitus        HHP       30-90    L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S

Tecophilaea    HBb       30-365         ˆ   50-55  Peaty           1/16"	Hold compost barely moist.

Tellima        HP        30-90          ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    S		See No. 6.         

Tephrosia      HP        21-42              65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Tetranema      GP        14-30              65-75  Peaty           JC

Teucrium       HP        25-30              70     Nicely drained    S

Thalictrum     HP        15-21          ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    1/8"

Thermopsis     HP        15-30              70     Nicely drained    1/16"	File or soak the seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Thunbergia     HHA       14-21          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           JC		Hold the compost barely moist.

Thymus         HP        15-30    L         55     Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Tiarella       HP        14-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		See No. 6.         

Tibouchina     GSh       30-90    L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Tigridia       H/HHBb    30-90              55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"

Tillandsia     GP        30-90    L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Tithonia       HHA       5-14     L     ˆ   70-    Nicely drained    S

Torenia        GA        15-30    L         70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Townsendia     HP        30-90          ˆ   60     Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 6.         

Trachelium     HHP       15-21    L         55-60  Nicely drained    S

Trachymene     HHA       15-30    D         70     Nicely drained    1/16"	Transplant rigorously.

Tradescantia   HP        30-40              70     Peaty           JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Tree Fems      HHP       30-120   L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 4.         

Trichosanthes  HHA       14-30              65-75  Peaty           1"		Sow singly in 2' pots.

Tricyrtis      HP        30-90          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"		Hold compost slighty moist.

Trillium       HP        545+           ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 15. Requires two intervals of a minimum of 3 months within the frig.

Tripteris      HA        5-14               60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		May be sown in situ.

Trollius       HP        30-365         ˆ   50     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Trop. SpeciosumHP        360-720        ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Tropaeolum     HA        10-15              55-65  Peaty           1/4"		May be sown in situ

Tulipa         HBb       60-90          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 6.         

Tunica         HP        14-60          ˆ   50     Nicely drained    1/16		See No. 6          

Tweedia        GP        30-90          ˆ   75     Nicely drained    JC



Urospermum     HP/HB     16-30    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC                 

Ursinia        HHA       14-30              55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Uvularia       HP        30-180         ˆ   55-60  Peaty           JC

Vallota        HHBb      30-60              65-70  Peaty           1/16"

Veltheimia     HHBb      30-90          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/16"	Hold compost barely moist

Venidium       HHA       6-14               60-65  Peaty           1/8"

Veratrum       HP        90-365         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/4²		See No. 6 and No. 16.

Verbascum      HB,HP     14-30              55-60  Nicely drained    1/16"	May be grown in situ

Verbena        HHA,HP    14-90    D     ˆ   65     Nicely drained    1/16"	Bonariensis & Venosa. See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Verbesina      HHA       14-30              60-65  Nicely drained    1/8"

Veronica       HP        15-30    L         70     Peaty           JC		Cut back soil temperature at evening.

Veronicastrum  HP        21-40    L         55-60  Nicely drained    JC

Vicia          HP        21-40              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Vinca          GA        15-30    D     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/16"

Viola          HP        14-21    D     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	See No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).

Viscaria       HA        10-21              60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Vriesia        GP        7-90     L     ˆ   60.7   Peaty           S		See No. 5.         



Wahlenbergia   HHA       14-28    L         60-70  Nicely drained    S

Wallflower     HB        10-14              65-70  Nicely drained    1/4"		Sow in reserve mattress, prick out 6² aside, plant out in October.

Waterlily      GP        14-30							File seed and submerge in water at 75-85'F, change water twice every day.

Watsonia       HBb       30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		Hold the compost slimy moist.

Xeranthemum    HA        10-15              70     Nicely drained    JC		Transplant rigorously.

Xerophyllum    HP        30-60          ˆ   55-60  Peaty           JC



Yucca          HA        30-365         ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC		Filamentosa germinates at 55°F.



Zantedeschia   HHP       30-90    L     ˆ   70-80  Peaty           S		See No. 13. Hold compost fairly moist.

Zauschneria    H/HHP     30-60    L         60-65  Nicely drained    JC

Zea            HHA       5-14               70     Peaty           1/4"		Sow seeds individually in peat pots.

zinnia         HHA       10-24              75-80  Peaty           1/16"	Sow seeds individually in peat pots.





_______________________________________________________________________________________





TREES AND SHRUBS



Abies          HT        21-30    L     ˆ   68-75  Peaty           S		Soak in a single day then pre-chill for 21 days. (No. 14).

Acer           HT        30-365+  L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		Soak for two days then No. 15. (2 months heat moist, 2 months frig)

Ailanthus      HT        30-90    L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S		Chip, soak then No. 14 for two weeks.

Akebia         HSh       30-180   L     ˆ   50-60  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (4 weeks).

Albiza         HSh/HT    30-90          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/8"		Soak for 12 hours in tepid water earlier than sowing.

Amorpha        HSh       30-120         ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    1/16"	Soak for 12 hours in tepid water earlier than sowing.

Andromeda      HSh       30-60    L     ˆ   50-60  Peaty           S		Stand seed pan in a saucer of water to maintain soil all the time moist.

Araucaria      HT        30-60    D         55-60  Peaty           1/4"		Sow instantly    

Arbutus        HT        60-90    L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (6-8 weeks).                

Arundinaria    HSh       30-90    L     ˆ   70     Peaty           JC		Stand seed in a saucer of water to maintain the soil all the time moist.

Asterolasia    HSh       30-180         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    1/16"

Aucuba         HSh       30-90          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Azalea         HSh       50-90    L     ˆ   55-60  Peaty           S		See No. 5 or No. 6. Hold shaded from direct solar.



Berberis       HSh       60-180   L     ˆ   50-65  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (8 weeks).

Betula         HT        30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (10 weeks).

Buddleia       HSh       20-30    L         70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Bupleurum      HSh       14-60              55-60  Nicely drained    JC



Calluna        HSh       30-60    L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Calocedrus     HT        30-90    L         50-60  Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Camellia       HSh       30-90          ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/4²		See No. 13 . Can also profit from No. 14.

Caragana       HSh       14-21    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 13.        

Carpinus       HT        30-365   L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 15. (1 month at 70°F then 4 months in frig.) or No. 16.

Caryopteris    HSh       30-90          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Catalpa        HT        14-30    L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		Give seedlings good air flow to stop damping off.

Ceanothus      HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S		Soak in a single day then deal with as No. 14 for two weeks.

Cedrus         HT        14-60    L     ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    S		Soak for 2-3 hours then deal with as No. 14 for 3 weeks.

Cephalotaxus   HSh       14-60          ˆ   60-65  Peaty           JC

Cercis         HSh       30-90    L     ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    JC		See No.13. Soak in hand scorching water then No. 14 for 2-3 months.

Chaenomeles    HSh       70-90    L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 7-10 weeks).

Chamaecyparis  HT,HHT    30-60    L         50-60  Peaty           JC		See No 14. (Pre-chilll for 3 weeks).

Chimonanthus   HSh       63-90    L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 5-8 weeks).

Chionanthus    HSh       30-180   L     ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 1 month)

Cistus         HSh       7-30     L         65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.

Clerodendron   HSh       60-90    L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-6 weeks).

Colutea        HSh       7-21               65-70  Nicely drained    1/16²	Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Cordyline      HHSh      30-60          ˆ   65-70  Peaty           1/16²

Cornus         HSh       90-730   L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S		See No.15. (2 months at 70°F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.

Coronilla      HHSh      30-60              65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Cotoneaster    HSh       180-365  L     ˆ   70     Acid Peaty      S		See No.15. (3-5 months at 70°F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.

Crataegus      HSh       180-730  L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S		See No.15. (3-5 months at 70'F then 3 months in frig) or No. 16.

Crinodendron   H/HHSh    30-120         ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No.13. (Soak for 3 hours).

Cryptomeria    HT        30-60          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           1/16²

Cupressus      HT        30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No.14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Cytisus        HSh       25-30    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No.13. Transplant to last quarters while nonetheless small.



Daboecia       HSh       30-120   L     ˆ   55-65  Acid peat       S		By no means permit compost to dry out.

Daphne         HSh       150- 365 L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    S		See No. 15.(2 months at 70°F then 3 months within the frig)

Davidia        HT        300-365        ˆ   50-65  Peaty           1/4		See No. 15.(3-4 months heat moist, 3-4 months frig.).

Decaisnea      HSh       30-180         ˆ   55-60  Nicely drained    1/4		



Elaeagnus      HT/HSh    140-180        ˆ   50-65  Nicely drained    1/16		See No. 15.(4 weeks heat moist, 8-12 weeks frig.).

Enkianthus     HSh       25-60    L     ˆ   60-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).

Erica          HSh       30-60    L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Euonymus       HSh       220-365        ˆ   50-65  Nicely drained    1/16		See No. 15.(8-12 weeks heat moist, 8-16 weeks frig.).



Fagus           HT       30-365   L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    JC		Soak in a single day then see No. 14 (pre-chill for six weeks) or No. 16.

Forsythia      HSh       30-90              55-65  Nicely drained    JC

FremontodendronHHSh/HSh  30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Fuchsia        HSh       21-90    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5. Soak in rain water for 3-4 days. Hold compost moist.



Gaultheria     HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4-10 weeks). Acid soils solely.

Genista        HSh       14-30              55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13.        

Gingko         HT        30-60    L     ˆ   70-75  Peaty           1/8		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 8-10 weeks).

Gleditschia    HT        14-30              65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Chip and soak for twenty-four hours. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Gymnocladus    HT        30-90          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    1/4		Chip and soak in heat water for twenty-four hours. See Nos. 12 and 13.



Hamamelis      HSh       270-365  L     ˆ   50-60  Peaty           1/16		See No.15. (3 months at 70°F then place in frig. for 3 months).

Hebe           HHSh      15-30              70     Peaty           JC

Hibiscus       HSh       30-60          ˆ   70-75  Nicely drained    1/16		See No.13.    

Hippophae      HSh       30-180   L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC		See No.14. (Pre-chill for 14 weeks).

Holodiscus     HSh       30-180         ˆ   60-65  Nicely drained    S



Indigofera     HSh       30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16		Pour almost boiling water over seed and depart to soak in a single day.



Jasminum       HSh       20-30              70-75  Nicely drained    JC

Juglans        HT        30-180   L     ˆ   50-60  Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (2-3 weeks). Place in order that dividing line is on the high.

Juniperus      HT        30-180   L     ˆ   45-50  Peaty           S		Soak for twenty-four hours. Excessive temperatures stop germination.



Kalmia         HSh       30-60    L     ˆ   70     Sandy peat      S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).

Kalmiopsis     HSh       30-60    L         65-70  Acid, sandy peatS

Koelreuteria   HT        30-60    L     ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		See No. 13. (Use boiling water) then No. 14 (place in frig. for 3 weeks).

Kolwitzia      HT        40-70    L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Soak for  24 hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).



Labumum        HT        30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    1/16		Chip and  soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Larix          HT        30-90    L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 1 month).

Laurus         HT        40-90    L     ˆ   50-60  Peaty           JC		Soak for twenty-four hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill 1 month)

Ledum          HSh       30-60    L     ˆ   55-65  Acid peat       S

Leycesteria    HSh       30-60              60-65  Sandy peat      JC

Liquidambar    HT        14-365   L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months). Do not let the seeds dry out.

Liriodendron   HT        60-365   L     ˆ   65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 16.

Loiseleuria    HSh       30-60              65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Lonicera       HSh       180+     L     ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. Place in frig. for 3 months. Hold temp. beneath 75°F.



Magnolia       HT        120+     L     ˆ   50     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 14. Place in frig. for 4 months.

Mahonia        HSh       90-120   L     ˆ   50     Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).                   

Malus          HT        120-365  L     ˆ   50     Peaty           JC		Soak for twenty-four hours then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 14 weeks).

Menziesia      HSh       30-60              55     Sandy peat      S		Hold compost uniformly moist.

Morus          HT        14-30    L         65-75  Peaty           S		See No. 5. or see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 1-3 months).

Myrtus         HHSH      30-90          ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		See No. 13.        



Nyssa          HT        90-365   L     ˆ   50     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).



Olea           HHT/HT    30-120         ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    1/8"

Olearia        H/HHSh    30-60    L         65-70  Nicely drained    S

Ostrya         HT        365+     L     ˆ   50-60  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 16.



Paeonia        HSh       270+     L     ˆ   70     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 15.        

Parthenocissus HSh       60-180   L     ˆ   60-70  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13 then 14. (Pre-chill for six week).

Paulownia      HT        30-60    L         55-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5 

Philadelphus   HSh       30-60              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Phlomis        HSh       30-90          ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    JC

Phyllodoce     HSh       30-60    L         55-65  Peaty           S

Picea          HT        30-60    L     ˆ   55     Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 21 days).

Pieris         HSh       30-70    L     ˆ   65-70  Acid Peat       S		See No. 5.         

Pinus          HT        30-60    L     ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    S		Soak seed, then No 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).

Pittosporum    HHSh      30-60          ˆ   55     Nicely drained    1/16"	Place seeds in a bag and dip in boiling water for a number of seconds.

Prunus         HT        120-365  L     ˆ   65-75  Nicely drained    1/16"	Soak in a single day then see No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 months).

Pseudotsuga    HT        30-180   L     ˆ   75     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 8 weeks).

Ptelia         HSh/HT    80-120             55-60  Nicely drained    1/8"		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).

Punica         HHSH      30-40    L         70-75  Nicely drained    S		See No. 13         

Pyracantha     HSh       40-180   L     ˆ   50     Peaty           JC		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for six weeks).



Quercus        HT        120-365  L     ˆ   50     Peaty           JC		Soak for twenty-four hours, then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).



Rhododendron   HSh       50-90    L     ˆ   55-60  Acid Peat       S		See No.  6. Hold shaded from direct solar.

Rhodotypos     HSh       365+     L     ˆ   55-65  Peaty           JC		See No. 15. (3 months at 70°F, 3 months chill, 3 months at 70°F).

Rhus           HSh       30-90          ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    JC		Chip or soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Robinia        HT        7-30    L         65-75  Nicely drained     S		See  No. 13. Soak in hand scorching water.

Rosa           HSh       30-365+  L     ˆ   55     Nicely drained    JC		See  No. 16 or No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).



Santolina      HSh       15-30              65-70  Nicely drained    JC

Sarcococca     HSh       30-120             55-65  Peaty           JC

Sequoia        HT        7-60     L     ˆ   65-70  Peaty           S

Skimmia        HSh       30-180   L     ˆ   50-60  Acid Peat       S		Soak in a single day then No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Sophora        HT        10-21              70-85  Nicely drained    JC		Chip and soak seeds. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Sorbus         HT        120-180  L     ˆ   65-70  Nicely drained    S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 months).

Spartium       HSh       7-30               70     Nicely drained    JC		Chip and soak. See Nos. 12 and 13.

Spiraea        HSh       30-40              55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Styrax         HSh       30-90          ˆ   55-65  Nicely drained    JC

Syringa        HSh       14-60    L         70     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 weeks).



Tamarix        HSh       30-50    L         65-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5.         

Taxodium       HT        14-60    L         70     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 30 days).                   

Taxus          HT        365+     L     ˆ   70     Peaty           JC		See No. 15. (3 months at 70°F, 3 months chill, 3 months at 70°F).

Thuja          HSh       14-60    L     ˆ   55     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Trachycarpus   HT        40-90    L     ˆ   55-65  Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 4 weeks).

Tsuga          HT        7-60     L     ˆ   60     Peaty           S		See No. 14. (Pre-chill for 3 months).



Ulex           HSh       14-21              65-75  Nicely drained    JC		See No. 13. 



Vaccinium      HSh       365+     L     ˆ   65-75  Acid Peat       S		See No. 16. 

Viburnum       HSh       240-540  L     ˆ   70     Nicely drained    JC		See No. 15. (3 months 70°F, 3 months chill, 3 months 70°F).



Wistaria       HSh       30-60              55-65  Nicely drained    1/8"		Chip and  soak in hand scorching water. See Nos. 12 and 13.



Zelkova        HT        14-60    L     ˆ   50-70  Peaty           S		See No. 5 or No. 14. (Pre-chill for two weeks).



The next information is supplied by Thompson & Morgan Profitable Seed Elevating Information. This information is out of print.

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