Strawberries (genus Fragaria) are one of many most vital fruit crops on the planet. In North America, California and Florida are the most important producers. In Canada, the Quebec province stands out with a rising manufacturing in recent times. In France, half of the strawberries are actually produced in soilless tradition (Ancay, 2010; Izard, 2017).
In recent times, soilless hydroponic strawberry cultivation in greenhouses has gained recognition. In reality, there are a lot of causes for this: discount of root illnesses through the use of sterile soil, improve in yield per unit of manufacturing, enchancment in working circumstances – planting, upkeep, simpler harvesting – and fruit high quality, higher use of areas unsuitable for agriculture, optimization of water and fertilizers, extension of the rising season, and so on. (Izard, 2017).
These days, strawberries are grown all 12 months spherical in greenhouses to satisfy the shoppers demand outdoors the summer season season.
On this article, we’ll see a short description of the vegetal physiology of strawberries after which the best rising circumstances of the plant. To complete, the article will current the completely different attainable techniques of tradition and some great benefits of producing strawberries in a greenhouse.
Strawberries are very low-stemmed vegetation within the Rosaceae household. The leaves are toothed (serrated) with white flowers composed of 5 petals and which produces strawberries.
The fruit is shaped by the entire fleshy receptacle of the flower. The strawberry has a crimson or whitish yellow colour relying on the variability, and an ovoid stadium form kind of rounded.
Every strawberry is produced from a single white flower bearing many stamens. The achenes are literally the “actual” fruits botanically talking.
The strawberry plant reproduces naturally by runners (or stolons). These are aerial stems that develop from the “mom” plant and take root on the nodes to offer new vegetation. If the rising circumstances are optimum a single plant can produce between 30 and 50 runners, relying on the vigor and qualities of the variability.
Sexual copy is feasible however not frequent. It’s used to create new varieties.
The weather conditions within the greenhouse depend upon the varieties and varieties of strawberries. On this part, we’ll see some normal information extracted varied scientific publications.
To develop strawberries in greenhouses it is very important have an environment friendly heating system. Certainly, the strawberry vegetation will have the ability to bear fruit all 12 months lengthy. The greenhouse will be operated in optimum circumstances even in the course of the winter.
With the intention to guarantee a good steadiness between the vegetative section and the manufacturing of fruits, it’s needed to have the ability to handle the temperature between 10°C (50°F) and 22°C (72°F) within the rising space. In reality, a too excessive temperature (> 25 °C or 77°F) , particularly at night time, can have a serious affect on the emergence of the flowers and the ripening of the fruit.
In a greenhouse, one of many vital ideas is to have a gradual improve in temperature when dormancy is lifted. On the whole, the temperature is elevated from 8°C (46°F) and 16°C (61°F) over a interval of about 4 weeks so as to develop a minimal leaf mass earlier than stimulating a flowering.
On the time of flowering, the temperature have to be maintained between 16°C (61°F) and 20°C (68°F) to make sure a great viability of the pollen protecting a stage of humidity favorable to pollination.
After the fruits seem, the temperatures have to be lowered round 15°C (59°F) to make sure a gradual and uniform maturation of the fruits.
– Humidity (RH) %
Relative humidity (RH) administration performs a serious function within the manufacturing of strawberries in greenhouses. The relative humidity have to be excessive (>90%) at sure levels of cultivation reminiscent of he vegetative section particularly at night time to keep away from marginal necrosis (browning on the sides).
Nonetheless, in the course of the day the RH have to be maintained at about 70-75% to keep away from the looks of fungal illnesses reminiscent of botrytis or bugs and permit the plant to develop (plant transpiration throughout photosynthesis).
Passive and energetic air flow in addition to fogging will guarantee optimum circumstances within the greenhouse.
Gentle is important for the cultivation of strawberries, particularly for the vegetative section and the initiation of flowering (floral induction). Certainly, the change of photoperiod will probably be a sign for the plant to begin producing flowers.
Increasingly more strawberry growers are speaking about a median gentle depth of 200 µmol/m-2/s-1 (as a substitute f 160-180 µmol/m-2/s-1). These gentle ranges are nearer to extra demanding crops like tomatoes and peppers.
With the intention to attain the brand new gentle depth targets, a part of the of growers “new era” are additionally utilizing LED (spectrum particular) to have the ability to have complementary gentle serving to in the course of the vegetative section and floral induction.
If we take for instance a system with fastened suspended gutter spaced 1.14m (3’8″) aside :
- 6 to eight vegetation / bag of 8 liters (or 2,1 gal)→ 1 to 1.25 liters (0,26 to 0,33 gal) of substrate / bag
- Crop density of 12 to 14 vegetation / m2
- 2 drippers / bag → 2 liters (0,53 gal) / hour / drip
- Normal irrigation: 100 ml (3,38 floz) /irrigation
Kinds of hydroponic system
We are going to deal with this part on the completely different suspended gutter techniques which will be set up in a contemporary greenhouses to develop soilless strawberry year-round.
– Mounted suspended gutter system
(Video in French)https://www.youtube.com/embed/Nx_3lJp5cNI?begin=41&characteristic=oembed
– Swinging suspended gutter system
(Video in English)https://www.youtube.com/embed/q1U7FS2xif8?begin=5&characteristic=oembed
– Lifting suspended gutter system
(Video in English)https://www.youtube.com/embed/q3XUXH76YBE?begin=28&characteristic=oembed
Benefits of rising strawberries in greenhouses
Under is a abstract of the benefits of manufacturing strawberries in greenhouses in comparison with typical open subject cultivation.
- Chance to supply with out pesticides because of the safety of nets and organic built-in management within the greenhouse (higher effectivity)
- Superior yield (crop density, as much as 15 kg / m2) and high quality (insect and illness management + correct local weather administration)
- Optimization of labor and discount of effort (throughout pruning and harvesting) with cultivation gutters at employees’ top
- Discount and recycling of inputs and limitation of environmental influence
- Water consumption lower
- Extension of the manufacturing season (year-round)
- Native manufacturing near the shoppers (no have to import from oversea in the course of the winter in some places)
Strawberry manufacturing shouldn’t be easy, it’s a demanding crop that requires particular technical help.
Nonetheless, the expansion views are vital for this crop. Demand for strawberries is rising worldwide always of the 12 months. As well as, shoppers are more and more delicate to transparency and traceability so as to devour natural merchandise with out pesticides.
For these causes, the manufacturing of strawberries in greenhouses with trendy applied sciences is an actual answer and may have a vibrant future.
Ancay, A., F. Fremin, et P. Sigg. (2010). Fraisiers sur substrat : quelles alternate options à la tourbe ?
Revue suisse Viticulture, Arboriculture, Horticulture, 42(2) :106–113.
Rising strawberries in greenhouses (OMAFRA):
Izard, D. (2017). La fraise hors sol sous abris froids. Récupéré de à http://gfol1.fruitsplus.web/
La tradition des fraises en serre (CIDES, 2000):
La manufacturing de fraises hors-sol est-elle faite pour vous ?
Optimisation de la manufacturing hors-sol de fraise à jours neutres sous abris (Université Laval, 2017):
Profil de la tradition de la fraise au Canada (Agri-Meals Canda, 2005) :